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Perdue Foods Will Introduce More Humane Living Conditions for Its Chickens

Perdue Foods Will Introduce More Humane Living Conditions for Its Chickens


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The announcement is a pivot to appease Millennials who care about the quality of life their chickens have had

The changes should also help chickens taste better.

Animal rights activists have scored a massive victory in the food industry: Perdue Foods is about to completely change the treatment of its chickens from egg to plate.

It doesn’t seem like Perdue planned on making wholesale changes; instead, its hand was forced by its consumer base, which is increasingly made up of millennials who want to know more about their food.

Perdue noticed a rising tide of comments and concerns about the quality of its chickens’ lives. As a result, the company will retrofit its chicken houses with windows to provide light (yes, this means that the chickens previously spent their entire lives in the dark). They will also put birds to sleep before slaughtering them amid a host of other encouraging changes.

The news is fantastic for those consumers who care about the lives of their chickens. From what it seems, Perdue is making real changes and genuinely wants to improve the quality of life. The fact that it won’t cost the company much and will help it cater to the younger generations of consumers certainly played into its motivation.

Plus, Chairman Jim Perdue notes that chickens that can move around are more tender and taste better: “That this product is going to be a superior product for consumers, to me, that’s the most important thing.”

Perdue chickens will live happier lives, taste better to the consumer, and won’t force Perdue to raise costs. Sounds like a win-win-win. If only other companies would abandon horrible practices and follow suit.


Could it be possible that the popular use of antibiotics has now compromised the natural functioning of the human immune system?

Antibiotics indirectly affect the immune system through their effect on the body’s microbiota, especially gut microbiota. Studies on farm animals that are fed antibiotics as a matter of course to fatten them up faster confirm this ( 1 ).

The body’s microbiota normally exist in a state of equilibrium that antibiotics disrupt since they can kill off not just pathogens but also more or less harmless residents (commensals/mutualists). Scale of disruption depends on several factors, not just age and health status of the person treated but also on the specific antibiotic(s), their dose(s) and duration. Upshot is that in the worst case scenario, there could be outright Dysbiosis – Wikipedia , wherein voids in healthy microbiota get filled by less beneficial, more opportunistic counterparts (below from 2).

Such changes affect not just the immune system but other aspects of physiology such as adipose, muscle and bone tissue (below from 3 ).

Younger the age, greater the potentially deleterious impact of antibiotics on the immune system, simply because (figure below from 4),

  • The microbiota composition is still dynamic and therefore more vulnerable to disruption by antibiotics.
  • Several aspects of the immune system aren’t fully formed at birth.

This is why early-life antibiotics can have life-long consequences in the form of chronic health conditions such as obesity, allergies and autoimmunities (below from 5 ).

The way antibiotics disrupt GI microbiota ends up disrupting the way the immune system is properly managed (its regulation) (below from 5 ).

As a result, some immune cell subsets could get depleted, others enriched, still others rendered haywire in their function (below from 6 , 7).

Bibliography

1. Schokker, Dirkjan, et al. “Long-lasting effects of early-life antibiotic treatment and routine animal handling on gut microbiota composition and immune system in pigs.” PLoS One 10.2 (2015): e0116523. Long-Lasting Effects of Early-Life Antibiotic Treatment and Routine Animal Handling on Gut Microbiota Composition and Immune System in Pigs

2. Lange, Kathleen, et al. “Effects of antibiotics on gut microbiota.” Digestive Diseases 34.3 (2016): 260-268.

3. Schulfer, Anjelique, and Martin J. Blaser. “Risks of antibiotic exposures early in life on the developing microbiome.” PLoS pathogens 11.7 (2015): e1004903. Risks of Antibiotic Exposures Early in Life on the Developing Microbiome

4. Thiemann, Sophie, Nathiana Smit, and Till Strowig. “Antibiotics and the intestinal microbiome: individual responses, resilience of the ecosystem, and the susceptibility to infections.” How to Overcome the Antibiotic Crisis. Springer, Cham, 2016. 123-146.

5. Langdon, Amy, Nathan Crook, and Gautam Dantas. “The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation.” Genome medicine 8.1 (2016): 39. The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation

6. Ubeda, Carles, and Eric G. Pamer. “Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense.” Trends in immunology 33.9 (2012): 459-466. Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense

7. Willing, Benjamin P., Shannon L. Russell, and B. Brett Finlay. “Shifting the balance: antibiotic effects on host–microbiota mutualism.” Nature Reviews Microbiology 9.4 (2011): 233.

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Could it be possible that the popular use of antibiotics has now compromised the natural functioning of the human immune system?

Antibiotics indirectly affect the immune system through their effect on the body’s microbiota, especially gut microbiota. Studies on farm animals that are fed antibiotics as a matter of course to fatten them up faster confirm this ( 1 ).

The body’s microbiota normally exist in a state of equilibrium that antibiotics disrupt since they can kill off not just pathogens but also more or less harmless residents (commensals/mutualists). Scale of disruption depends on several factors, not just age and health status of the person treated but also on the specific antibiotic(s), their dose(s) and duration. Upshot is that in the worst case scenario, there could be outright Dysbiosis – Wikipedia , wherein voids in healthy microbiota get filled by less beneficial, more opportunistic counterparts (below from 2).

Such changes affect not just the immune system but other aspects of physiology such as adipose, muscle and bone tissue (below from 3 ).

Younger the age, greater the potentially deleterious impact of antibiotics on the immune system, simply because (figure below from 4),

  • The microbiota composition is still dynamic and therefore more vulnerable to disruption by antibiotics.
  • Several aspects of the immune system aren’t fully formed at birth.

This is why early-life antibiotics can have life-long consequences in the form of chronic health conditions such as obesity, allergies and autoimmunities (below from 5 ).

The way antibiotics disrupt GI microbiota ends up disrupting the way the immune system is properly managed (its regulation) (below from 5 ).

As a result, some immune cell subsets could get depleted, others enriched, still others rendered haywire in their function (below from 6 , 7).

Bibliography

1. Schokker, Dirkjan, et al. “Long-lasting effects of early-life antibiotic treatment and routine animal handling on gut microbiota composition and immune system in pigs.” PLoS One 10.2 (2015): e0116523. Long-Lasting Effects of Early-Life Antibiotic Treatment and Routine Animal Handling on Gut Microbiota Composition and Immune System in Pigs

2. Lange, Kathleen, et al. “Effects of antibiotics on gut microbiota.” Digestive Diseases 34.3 (2016): 260-268.

3. Schulfer, Anjelique, and Martin J. Blaser. “Risks of antibiotic exposures early in life on the developing microbiome.” PLoS pathogens 11.7 (2015): e1004903. Risks of Antibiotic Exposures Early in Life on the Developing Microbiome

4. Thiemann, Sophie, Nathiana Smit, and Till Strowig. “Antibiotics and the intestinal microbiome: individual responses, resilience of the ecosystem, and the susceptibility to infections.” How to Overcome the Antibiotic Crisis. Springer, Cham, 2016. 123-146.

5. Langdon, Amy, Nathan Crook, and Gautam Dantas. “The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation.” Genome medicine 8.1 (2016): 39. The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation

6. Ubeda, Carles, and Eric G. Pamer. “Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense.” Trends in immunology 33.9 (2012): 459-466. Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense

7. Willing, Benjamin P., Shannon L. Russell, and B. Brett Finlay. “Shifting the balance: antibiotic effects on host–microbiota mutualism.” Nature Reviews Microbiology 9.4 (2011): 233.

Share this:

Like this:


Could it be possible that the popular use of antibiotics has now compromised the natural functioning of the human immune system?

Antibiotics indirectly affect the immune system through their effect on the body’s microbiota, especially gut microbiota. Studies on farm animals that are fed antibiotics as a matter of course to fatten them up faster confirm this ( 1 ).

The body’s microbiota normally exist in a state of equilibrium that antibiotics disrupt since they can kill off not just pathogens but also more or less harmless residents (commensals/mutualists). Scale of disruption depends on several factors, not just age and health status of the person treated but also on the specific antibiotic(s), their dose(s) and duration. Upshot is that in the worst case scenario, there could be outright Dysbiosis – Wikipedia , wherein voids in healthy microbiota get filled by less beneficial, more opportunistic counterparts (below from 2).

Such changes affect not just the immune system but other aspects of physiology such as adipose, muscle and bone tissue (below from 3 ).

Younger the age, greater the potentially deleterious impact of antibiotics on the immune system, simply because (figure below from 4),

  • The microbiota composition is still dynamic and therefore more vulnerable to disruption by antibiotics.
  • Several aspects of the immune system aren’t fully formed at birth.

This is why early-life antibiotics can have life-long consequences in the form of chronic health conditions such as obesity, allergies and autoimmunities (below from 5 ).

The way antibiotics disrupt GI microbiota ends up disrupting the way the immune system is properly managed (its regulation) (below from 5 ).

As a result, some immune cell subsets could get depleted, others enriched, still others rendered haywire in their function (below from 6 , 7).

Bibliography

1. Schokker, Dirkjan, et al. “Long-lasting effects of early-life antibiotic treatment and routine animal handling on gut microbiota composition and immune system in pigs.” PLoS One 10.2 (2015): e0116523. Long-Lasting Effects of Early-Life Antibiotic Treatment and Routine Animal Handling on Gut Microbiota Composition and Immune System in Pigs

2. Lange, Kathleen, et al. “Effects of antibiotics on gut microbiota.” Digestive Diseases 34.3 (2016): 260-268.

3. Schulfer, Anjelique, and Martin J. Blaser. “Risks of antibiotic exposures early in life on the developing microbiome.” PLoS pathogens 11.7 (2015): e1004903. Risks of Antibiotic Exposures Early in Life on the Developing Microbiome

4. Thiemann, Sophie, Nathiana Smit, and Till Strowig. “Antibiotics and the intestinal microbiome: individual responses, resilience of the ecosystem, and the susceptibility to infections.” How to Overcome the Antibiotic Crisis. Springer, Cham, 2016. 123-146.

5. Langdon, Amy, Nathan Crook, and Gautam Dantas. “The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation.” Genome medicine 8.1 (2016): 39. The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation

6. Ubeda, Carles, and Eric G. Pamer. “Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense.” Trends in immunology 33.9 (2012): 459-466. Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense

7. Willing, Benjamin P., Shannon L. Russell, and B. Brett Finlay. “Shifting the balance: antibiotic effects on host–microbiota mutualism.” Nature Reviews Microbiology 9.4 (2011): 233.

Share this:

Like this:


Could it be possible that the popular use of antibiotics has now compromised the natural functioning of the human immune system?

Antibiotics indirectly affect the immune system through their effect on the body’s microbiota, especially gut microbiota. Studies on farm animals that are fed antibiotics as a matter of course to fatten them up faster confirm this ( 1 ).

The body’s microbiota normally exist in a state of equilibrium that antibiotics disrupt since they can kill off not just pathogens but also more or less harmless residents (commensals/mutualists). Scale of disruption depends on several factors, not just age and health status of the person treated but also on the specific antibiotic(s), their dose(s) and duration. Upshot is that in the worst case scenario, there could be outright Dysbiosis – Wikipedia , wherein voids in healthy microbiota get filled by less beneficial, more opportunistic counterparts (below from 2).

Such changes affect not just the immune system but other aspects of physiology such as adipose, muscle and bone tissue (below from 3 ).

Younger the age, greater the potentially deleterious impact of antibiotics on the immune system, simply because (figure below from 4),

  • The microbiota composition is still dynamic and therefore more vulnerable to disruption by antibiotics.
  • Several aspects of the immune system aren’t fully formed at birth.

This is why early-life antibiotics can have life-long consequences in the form of chronic health conditions such as obesity, allergies and autoimmunities (below from 5 ).

The way antibiotics disrupt GI microbiota ends up disrupting the way the immune system is properly managed (its regulation) (below from 5 ).

As a result, some immune cell subsets could get depleted, others enriched, still others rendered haywire in their function (below from 6 , 7).

Bibliography

1. Schokker, Dirkjan, et al. “Long-lasting effects of early-life antibiotic treatment and routine animal handling on gut microbiota composition and immune system in pigs.” PLoS One 10.2 (2015): e0116523. Long-Lasting Effects of Early-Life Antibiotic Treatment and Routine Animal Handling on Gut Microbiota Composition and Immune System in Pigs

2. Lange, Kathleen, et al. “Effects of antibiotics on gut microbiota.” Digestive Diseases 34.3 (2016): 260-268.

3. Schulfer, Anjelique, and Martin J. Blaser. “Risks of antibiotic exposures early in life on the developing microbiome.” PLoS pathogens 11.7 (2015): e1004903. Risks of Antibiotic Exposures Early in Life on the Developing Microbiome

4. Thiemann, Sophie, Nathiana Smit, and Till Strowig. “Antibiotics and the intestinal microbiome: individual responses, resilience of the ecosystem, and the susceptibility to infections.” How to Overcome the Antibiotic Crisis. Springer, Cham, 2016. 123-146.

5. Langdon, Amy, Nathan Crook, and Gautam Dantas. “The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation.” Genome medicine 8.1 (2016): 39. The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation

6. Ubeda, Carles, and Eric G. Pamer. “Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense.” Trends in immunology 33.9 (2012): 459-466. Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense

7. Willing, Benjamin P., Shannon L. Russell, and B. Brett Finlay. “Shifting the balance: antibiotic effects on host–microbiota mutualism.” Nature Reviews Microbiology 9.4 (2011): 233.

Share this:

Like this:


Could it be possible that the popular use of antibiotics has now compromised the natural functioning of the human immune system?

Antibiotics indirectly affect the immune system through their effect on the body’s microbiota, especially gut microbiota. Studies on farm animals that are fed antibiotics as a matter of course to fatten them up faster confirm this ( 1 ).

The body’s microbiota normally exist in a state of equilibrium that antibiotics disrupt since they can kill off not just pathogens but also more or less harmless residents (commensals/mutualists). Scale of disruption depends on several factors, not just age and health status of the person treated but also on the specific antibiotic(s), their dose(s) and duration. Upshot is that in the worst case scenario, there could be outright Dysbiosis – Wikipedia , wherein voids in healthy microbiota get filled by less beneficial, more opportunistic counterparts (below from 2).

Such changes affect not just the immune system but other aspects of physiology such as adipose, muscle and bone tissue (below from 3 ).

Younger the age, greater the potentially deleterious impact of antibiotics on the immune system, simply because (figure below from 4),

  • The microbiota composition is still dynamic and therefore more vulnerable to disruption by antibiotics.
  • Several aspects of the immune system aren’t fully formed at birth.

This is why early-life antibiotics can have life-long consequences in the form of chronic health conditions such as obesity, allergies and autoimmunities (below from 5 ).

The way antibiotics disrupt GI microbiota ends up disrupting the way the immune system is properly managed (its regulation) (below from 5 ).

As a result, some immune cell subsets could get depleted, others enriched, still others rendered haywire in their function (below from 6 , 7).

Bibliography

1. Schokker, Dirkjan, et al. “Long-lasting effects of early-life antibiotic treatment and routine animal handling on gut microbiota composition and immune system in pigs.” PLoS One 10.2 (2015): e0116523. Long-Lasting Effects of Early-Life Antibiotic Treatment and Routine Animal Handling on Gut Microbiota Composition and Immune System in Pigs

2. Lange, Kathleen, et al. “Effects of antibiotics on gut microbiota.” Digestive Diseases 34.3 (2016): 260-268.

3. Schulfer, Anjelique, and Martin J. Blaser. “Risks of antibiotic exposures early in life on the developing microbiome.” PLoS pathogens 11.7 (2015): e1004903. Risks of Antibiotic Exposures Early in Life on the Developing Microbiome

4. Thiemann, Sophie, Nathiana Smit, and Till Strowig. “Antibiotics and the intestinal microbiome: individual responses, resilience of the ecosystem, and the susceptibility to infections.” How to Overcome the Antibiotic Crisis. Springer, Cham, 2016. 123-146.

5. Langdon, Amy, Nathan Crook, and Gautam Dantas. “The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation.” Genome medicine 8.1 (2016): 39. The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation

6. Ubeda, Carles, and Eric G. Pamer. “Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense.” Trends in immunology 33.9 (2012): 459-466. Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense

7. Willing, Benjamin P., Shannon L. Russell, and B. Brett Finlay. “Shifting the balance: antibiotic effects on host–microbiota mutualism.” Nature Reviews Microbiology 9.4 (2011): 233.

Share this:

Like this:


Could it be possible that the popular use of antibiotics has now compromised the natural functioning of the human immune system?

Antibiotics indirectly affect the immune system through their effect on the body’s microbiota, especially gut microbiota. Studies on farm animals that are fed antibiotics as a matter of course to fatten them up faster confirm this ( 1 ).

The body’s microbiota normally exist in a state of equilibrium that antibiotics disrupt since they can kill off not just pathogens but also more or less harmless residents (commensals/mutualists). Scale of disruption depends on several factors, not just age and health status of the person treated but also on the specific antibiotic(s), their dose(s) and duration. Upshot is that in the worst case scenario, there could be outright Dysbiosis – Wikipedia , wherein voids in healthy microbiota get filled by less beneficial, more opportunistic counterparts (below from 2).

Such changes affect not just the immune system but other aspects of physiology such as adipose, muscle and bone tissue (below from 3 ).

Younger the age, greater the potentially deleterious impact of antibiotics on the immune system, simply because (figure below from 4),

  • The microbiota composition is still dynamic and therefore more vulnerable to disruption by antibiotics.
  • Several aspects of the immune system aren’t fully formed at birth.

This is why early-life antibiotics can have life-long consequences in the form of chronic health conditions such as obesity, allergies and autoimmunities (below from 5 ).

The way antibiotics disrupt GI microbiota ends up disrupting the way the immune system is properly managed (its regulation) (below from 5 ).

As a result, some immune cell subsets could get depleted, others enriched, still others rendered haywire in their function (below from 6 , 7).

Bibliography

1. Schokker, Dirkjan, et al. “Long-lasting effects of early-life antibiotic treatment and routine animal handling on gut microbiota composition and immune system in pigs.” PLoS One 10.2 (2015): e0116523. Long-Lasting Effects of Early-Life Antibiotic Treatment and Routine Animal Handling on Gut Microbiota Composition and Immune System in Pigs

2. Lange, Kathleen, et al. “Effects of antibiotics on gut microbiota.” Digestive Diseases 34.3 (2016): 260-268.

3. Schulfer, Anjelique, and Martin J. Blaser. “Risks of antibiotic exposures early in life on the developing microbiome.” PLoS pathogens 11.7 (2015): e1004903. Risks of Antibiotic Exposures Early in Life on the Developing Microbiome

4. Thiemann, Sophie, Nathiana Smit, and Till Strowig. “Antibiotics and the intestinal microbiome: individual responses, resilience of the ecosystem, and the susceptibility to infections.” How to Overcome the Antibiotic Crisis. Springer, Cham, 2016. 123-146.

5. Langdon, Amy, Nathan Crook, and Gautam Dantas. “The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation.” Genome medicine 8.1 (2016): 39. The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation

6. Ubeda, Carles, and Eric G. Pamer. “Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense.” Trends in immunology 33.9 (2012): 459-466. Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense

7. Willing, Benjamin P., Shannon L. Russell, and B. Brett Finlay. “Shifting the balance: antibiotic effects on host–microbiota mutualism.” Nature Reviews Microbiology 9.4 (2011): 233.

Share this:

Like this:


Could it be possible that the popular use of antibiotics has now compromised the natural functioning of the human immune system?

Antibiotics indirectly affect the immune system through their effect on the body’s microbiota, especially gut microbiota. Studies on farm animals that are fed antibiotics as a matter of course to fatten them up faster confirm this ( 1 ).

The body’s microbiota normally exist in a state of equilibrium that antibiotics disrupt since they can kill off not just pathogens but also more or less harmless residents (commensals/mutualists). Scale of disruption depends on several factors, not just age and health status of the person treated but also on the specific antibiotic(s), their dose(s) and duration. Upshot is that in the worst case scenario, there could be outright Dysbiosis – Wikipedia , wherein voids in healthy microbiota get filled by less beneficial, more opportunistic counterparts (below from 2).

Such changes affect not just the immune system but other aspects of physiology such as adipose, muscle and bone tissue (below from 3 ).

Younger the age, greater the potentially deleterious impact of antibiotics on the immune system, simply because (figure below from 4),

  • The microbiota composition is still dynamic and therefore more vulnerable to disruption by antibiotics.
  • Several aspects of the immune system aren’t fully formed at birth.

This is why early-life antibiotics can have life-long consequences in the form of chronic health conditions such as obesity, allergies and autoimmunities (below from 5 ).

The way antibiotics disrupt GI microbiota ends up disrupting the way the immune system is properly managed (its regulation) (below from 5 ).

As a result, some immune cell subsets could get depleted, others enriched, still others rendered haywire in their function (below from 6 , 7).

Bibliography

1. Schokker, Dirkjan, et al. “Long-lasting effects of early-life antibiotic treatment and routine animal handling on gut microbiota composition and immune system in pigs.” PLoS One 10.2 (2015): e0116523. Long-Lasting Effects of Early-Life Antibiotic Treatment and Routine Animal Handling on Gut Microbiota Composition and Immune System in Pigs

2. Lange, Kathleen, et al. “Effects of antibiotics on gut microbiota.” Digestive Diseases 34.3 (2016): 260-268.

3. Schulfer, Anjelique, and Martin J. Blaser. “Risks of antibiotic exposures early in life on the developing microbiome.” PLoS pathogens 11.7 (2015): e1004903. Risks of Antibiotic Exposures Early in Life on the Developing Microbiome

4. Thiemann, Sophie, Nathiana Smit, and Till Strowig. “Antibiotics and the intestinal microbiome: individual responses, resilience of the ecosystem, and the susceptibility to infections.” How to Overcome the Antibiotic Crisis. Springer, Cham, 2016. 123-146.

5. Langdon, Amy, Nathan Crook, and Gautam Dantas. “The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation.” Genome medicine 8.1 (2016): 39. The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation

6. Ubeda, Carles, and Eric G. Pamer. “Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense.” Trends in immunology 33.9 (2012): 459-466. Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense

7. Willing, Benjamin P., Shannon L. Russell, and B. Brett Finlay. “Shifting the balance: antibiotic effects on host–microbiota mutualism.” Nature Reviews Microbiology 9.4 (2011): 233.

Share this:

Like this:


Could it be possible that the popular use of antibiotics has now compromised the natural functioning of the human immune system?

Antibiotics indirectly affect the immune system through their effect on the body’s microbiota, especially gut microbiota. Studies on farm animals that are fed antibiotics as a matter of course to fatten them up faster confirm this ( 1 ).

The body’s microbiota normally exist in a state of equilibrium that antibiotics disrupt since they can kill off not just pathogens but also more or less harmless residents (commensals/mutualists). Scale of disruption depends on several factors, not just age and health status of the person treated but also on the specific antibiotic(s), their dose(s) and duration. Upshot is that in the worst case scenario, there could be outright Dysbiosis – Wikipedia , wherein voids in healthy microbiota get filled by less beneficial, more opportunistic counterparts (below from 2).

Such changes affect not just the immune system but other aspects of physiology such as adipose, muscle and bone tissue (below from 3 ).

Younger the age, greater the potentially deleterious impact of antibiotics on the immune system, simply because (figure below from 4),

  • The microbiota composition is still dynamic and therefore more vulnerable to disruption by antibiotics.
  • Several aspects of the immune system aren’t fully formed at birth.

This is why early-life antibiotics can have life-long consequences in the form of chronic health conditions such as obesity, allergies and autoimmunities (below from 5 ).

The way antibiotics disrupt GI microbiota ends up disrupting the way the immune system is properly managed (its regulation) (below from 5 ).

As a result, some immune cell subsets could get depleted, others enriched, still others rendered haywire in their function (below from 6 , 7).

Bibliography

1. Schokker, Dirkjan, et al. “Long-lasting effects of early-life antibiotic treatment and routine animal handling on gut microbiota composition and immune system in pigs.” PLoS One 10.2 (2015): e0116523. Long-Lasting Effects of Early-Life Antibiotic Treatment and Routine Animal Handling on Gut Microbiota Composition and Immune System in Pigs

2. Lange, Kathleen, et al. “Effects of antibiotics on gut microbiota.” Digestive Diseases 34.3 (2016): 260-268.

3. Schulfer, Anjelique, and Martin J. Blaser. “Risks of antibiotic exposures early in life on the developing microbiome.” PLoS pathogens 11.7 (2015): e1004903. Risks of Antibiotic Exposures Early in Life on the Developing Microbiome

4. Thiemann, Sophie, Nathiana Smit, and Till Strowig. “Antibiotics and the intestinal microbiome: individual responses, resilience of the ecosystem, and the susceptibility to infections.” How to Overcome the Antibiotic Crisis. Springer, Cham, 2016. 123-146.

5. Langdon, Amy, Nathan Crook, and Gautam Dantas. “The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation.” Genome medicine 8.1 (2016): 39. The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation

6. Ubeda, Carles, and Eric G. Pamer. “Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense.” Trends in immunology 33.9 (2012): 459-466. Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense

7. Willing, Benjamin P., Shannon L. Russell, and B. Brett Finlay. “Shifting the balance: antibiotic effects on host–microbiota mutualism.” Nature Reviews Microbiology 9.4 (2011): 233.

Share this:

Like this:


Could it be possible that the popular use of antibiotics has now compromised the natural functioning of the human immune system?

Antibiotics indirectly affect the immune system through their effect on the body’s microbiota, especially gut microbiota. Studies on farm animals that are fed antibiotics as a matter of course to fatten them up faster confirm this ( 1 ).

The body’s microbiota normally exist in a state of equilibrium that antibiotics disrupt since they can kill off not just pathogens but also more or less harmless residents (commensals/mutualists). Scale of disruption depends on several factors, not just age and health status of the person treated but also on the specific antibiotic(s), their dose(s) and duration. Upshot is that in the worst case scenario, there could be outright Dysbiosis – Wikipedia , wherein voids in healthy microbiota get filled by less beneficial, more opportunistic counterparts (below from 2).

Such changes affect not just the immune system but other aspects of physiology such as adipose, muscle and bone tissue (below from 3 ).

Younger the age, greater the potentially deleterious impact of antibiotics on the immune system, simply because (figure below from 4),

  • The microbiota composition is still dynamic and therefore more vulnerable to disruption by antibiotics.
  • Several aspects of the immune system aren’t fully formed at birth.

This is why early-life antibiotics can have life-long consequences in the form of chronic health conditions such as obesity, allergies and autoimmunities (below from 5 ).

The way antibiotics disrupt GI microbiota ends up disrupting the way the immune system is properly managed (its regulation) (below from 5 ).

As a result, some immune cell subsets could get depleted, others enriched, still others rendered haywire in their function (below from 6 , 7).

Bibliography

1. Schokker, Dirkjan, et al. “Long-lasting effects of early-life antibiotic treatment and routine animal handling on gut microbiota composition and immune system in pigs.” PLoS One 10.2 (2015): e0116523. Long-Lasting Effects of Early-Life Antibiotic Treatment and Routine Animal Handling on Gut Microbiota Composition and Immune System in Pigs

2. Lange, Kathleen, et al. “Effects of antibiotics on gut microbiota.” Digestive Diseases 34.3 (2016): 260-268.

3. Schulfer, Anjelique, and Martin J. Blaser. “Risks of antibiotic exposures early in life on the developing microbiome.” PLoS pathogens 11.7 (2015): e1004903. Risks of Antibiotic Exposures Early in Life on the Developing Microbiome

4. Thiemann, Sophie, Nathiana Smit, and Till Strowig. “Antibiotics and the intestinal microbiome: individual responses, resilience of the ecosystem, and the susceptibility to infections.” How to Overcome the Antibiotic Crisis. Springer, Cham, 2016. 123-146.

5. Langdon, Amy, Nathan Crook, and Gautam Dantas. “The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation.” Genome medicine 8.1 (2016): 39. The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation

6. Ubeda, Carles, and Eric G. Pamer. “Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense.” Trends in immunology 33.9 (2012): 459-466. Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense

7. Willing, Benjamin P., Shannon L. Russell, and B. Brett Finlay. “Shifting the balance: antibiotic effects on host–microbiota mutualism.” Nature Reviews Microbiology 9.4 (2011): 233.

Share this:

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Could it be possible that the popular use of antibiotics has now compromised the natural functioning of the human immune system?

Antibiotics indirectly affect the immune system through their effect on the body’s microbiota, especially gut microbiota. Studies on farm animals that are fed antibiotics as a matter of course to fatten them up faster confirm this ( 1 ).

The body’s microbiota normally exist in a state of equilibrium that antibiotics disrupt since they can kill off not just pathogens but also more or less harmless residents (commensals/mutualists). Scale of disruption depends on several factors, not just age and health status of the person treated but also on the specific antibiotic(s), their dose(s) and duration. Upshot is that in the worst case scenario, there could be outright Dysbiosis – Wikipedia , wherein voids in healthy microbiota get filled by less beneficial, more opportunistic counterparts (below from 2).

Such changes affect not just the immune system but other aspects of physiology such as adipose, muscle and bone tissue (below from 3 ).

Younger the age, greater the potentially deleterious impact of antibiotics on the immune system, simply because (figure below from 4),

  • The microbiota composition is still dynamic and therefore more vulnerable to disruption by antibiotics.
  • Several aspects of the immune system aren’t fully formed at birth.

This is why early-life antibiotics can have life-long consequences in the form of chronic health conditions such as obesity, allergies and autoimmunities (below from 5 ).

The way antibiotics disrupt GI microbiota ends up disrupting the way the immune system is properly managed (its regulation) (below from 5 ).

As a result, some immune cell subsets could get depleted, others enriched, still others rendered haywire in their function (below from 6 , 7).

Bibliography

1. Schokker, Dirkjan, et al. “Long-lasting effects of early-life antibiotic treatment and routine animal handling on gut microbiota composition and immune system in pigs.” PLoS One 10.2 (2015): e0116523. Long-Lasting Effects of Early-Life Antibiotic Treatment and Routine Animal Handling on Gut Microbiota Composition and Immune System in Pigs

2. Lange, Kathleen, et al. “Effects of antibiotics on gut microbiota.” Digestive Diseases 34.3 (2016): 260-268.

3. Schulfer, Anjelique, and Martin J. Blaser. “Risks of antibiotic exposures early in life on the developing microbiome.” PLoS pathogens 11.7 (2015): e1004903. Risks of Antibiotic Exposures Early in Life on the Developing Microbiome

4. Thiemann, Sophie, Nathiana Smit, and Till Strowig. “Antibiotics and the intestinal microbiome: individual responses, resilience of the ecosystem, and the susceptibility to infections.” How to Overcome the Antibiotic Crisis. Springer, Cham, 2016. 123-146.

5. Langdon, Amy, Nathan Crook, and Gautam Dantas. “The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation.” Genome medicine 8.1 (2016): 39. The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation

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